Bathroom / Toilet
The most important is the Toilets as it is Vulnerable for the total life of the building. The presentation of water is to be totally avoided. Precaution While putting concrete: In the bottom slab of the toilet. No pours should be there to avoid leakage. When water is stored, after centering is removed, no seepage should come.The entire bottom portion should be coated with waterproof material and water should be stored for a week to test the seepage. One should provide safety measures, for the water to pass out, if at all it comes by any manned to this bottom portion. So the bottom portion should be plastered in a sloppy way, to collect all the water at point just (I Feet) adjacent to the outer wall and a spot pipe to be provided to take the whole water out.
The water seepages to the bottom portion of the toilet byfive means:
Leakage through the gap or space between top flooring tiles.
Leakage through the gratings fixed in the Bathroom.
Leakage a the joints between the pipes lied underneath the top flooring.
Leakage through the joints of the outlet pipes (Drainage & Waste Water) and Concrete beam
Leakage through the bottom slab of the toilet.
1.If it’s packed by means of white cement it will whole good in normal condition. But nowadays everybody uses dilute acid for cleaning the flooring. It is not a good practice, as it will eat away the white cement and thereby create a void between the two tiles. Because of the voids the water passes through. To arrest such a leakage, a special material called EPOXY Grouting which cost Rs.950/- per kg., (white cement cost Rs.20/-per kg.,) this will totally avoid the leakage through the gap.
2.This is also happening because of the above reason of white cement and should be arrested by means of EPOXY Grouting.
3.It occurs because of using acids inside the closet. It can be arrested by using acid proof “Fiber Glass Insulation” over the joints of all the pipes and Fittings (approximately 20 to 25 joints will come for each bathroom)
4.It occurs due to careless packing in between the concrete and the bottom of the pipes. It can be arrested by
a) By putting a hole at least 1 inch above the toilet flooring and placing the pipe inside and packing by means of cement, sand slurry and jute rope tightly inserted thought the thickness of the concrete from inside and outside.
b) 1 inch gap is required so that the bottom of the pipe can be packed perfectly. If the gap is less than that we cannot insert the jute rope properly at the bottom of the pipe, where the leakage develops from inside.
5.a) This happens due to improper concreting. This can be avoided by using special concrete (1:11/2 : 3) with less water and by adding water proofing agents such as “FOSROCK 421” chemical or “SICA ” liquid (200 to 250mm per every bag of cement) and by putting proper needle vibration. This will avoid all the air holes in the concrete so that a toilet won’t leak.
b) Stagnation of water in between the toilet flooring and tiles above.
It happens due to the leakage of water as mentioned in the above points (1 to 3). Once the leakage happens the water comes to the space between the top tile and bottom concrete. which is normally packed by means of broken brick mortar. This brick mortar absorbs the leaked water and expands. This will result the crack in the floor which allows further penetration of water. In order to avoid this and to permit the leaked water to flow easily, one can use the babbles or of 3/4thjally to cover the pipes inside and a small loose concrete should be provided above that up to 3inch. To collect the leaked water, the bottom of the toilet flooring should be plastered in a sloped way to a particular point. A PVC spouts pipe should be inserted in a sloped manner to the outside of the wall and all the leaked water will pass through this.
The major reasons for all these leakage is not the plumbers, which normally everyone thrown the blame upon them. Hence we presume, though there is any leakage comes, even all precaution are taken care of, as we are probity a special spout to send the seepage / leakage water outside an instead of it accumulated inside. A highly talented workmanship is required at each point, to properly avoid the leakage. The FRP Joint makes the pipe lines a homogeneous are without any inner joints, from the closet, wash basin, till ¾ inch away from the outer wall of the toilets. The jointing at the grating should be properly packed by the grouting Epoxy material to avoid the jointing leakage. All these should was properly supervised at each point junction, so that future problems can be totally eradicated. The major vulnerable part is water is in constant contact. A good quality Fiber Glass Doors are the most suitable for this, though the cost is minimum 3 to 4 times more than normal Water proof flush doors.FRP is the best material, as it is universally used in loot and cruise body construction, which is always in the sea water. It totally resists the corrosion by salt water. Similarly, all the wings of the windmills are made by FRP materials, as it is very light in weight & withstand high temperature.
Moreover, it is the most durable material when compared to any plastic or UPC Products. The strength of One layer of FRP is 160 N/mm2 which is more than 5 times stronger than concrete (25N/mm2). Hence ti is adopted in well developed Countries for bedroom doors, frames, windows and ventilators for its best elegance, durability and strength.